Alternative Critical Interpretations of A Streetcar Named Desire


One of the Assessment Objectives for A Streetcar Named Desire in the AS Drama and Poetry exam is AO5 – alternative critical interpretations. This AO does not exist for A Streetcar Named Desire in the A2 Drama exam but it can still count as AO3 (context). The following is a list of critics and critical perspectives that I have collected over the last year. While it is not necessary to know the names of specific critics or perspectives, it is helpful — but I know it is easy to forget, so you can replace their names with stock phrases, such as “Critics say…” or “Some have interpreted this as…”.

Albert Wertheim – Stella and Stanley’s baby represents the future — which is a Kowalski future, not a DuBois future, as shown by Blanche being removed and Stanley staying in the household, the ultimate victory

Benjamin Nelson – Blanche’s tragedy manifests itself in the diegetic of the play, making it a universal tragedy (the Blind Mexican Woman is a pertinent example of this)

Bert Cardullo – Blanche’s courting of Mitch mirrors Mary Magdalene’s courting of Jesus and her eventual redemption through it; this is twisted by Mitch’s rejection of Blanche

Brooks Atkinson – Streetcar is a deep exploration of a singular person with no sociopolitical aspects

Elia Kazan (the director of the first stage productions and the film of Streetcar) – Stanley didn’t want to rape Blanche, but was eventually forced to by her refusal to bargain with him on his own terms
Stella has found a sort of salvation with Stanley, but at the tremendous cost that she must ignore how unhappy his actions make her
Blanche’s tragic flaw is that she adheres to the Southern tradition that she needs a man for completion — she can complete herself

Harold Bloom (one of the most important literary critics of the 20th/21st century) – With his characters, Williams builds up archetypes and then destroys our preconceived notions of them (i.e. Blanche as purity, Stanley as machismo)
Desire is the single most important theme of the play — even Blanche, who initially seems to represent purity, is tainted by desire
Stella is genuinely in love with Stanley, “like many battered women”
Blanche is “a failed Whitmanian”

Henry Popkin – Conducted a study of Williams’ work and found three major character types: the Adonis (Stanley), the Gargoyle (Stella) and the Failed Ingenue (Blanche)
Stanley’s “disrespectful” speech symbolises his freedom and vitality while Blanche’s “respectful” speech shows how she is rooted to the past

J.H. Adler – Stanley is more creative than destructive – he shows the vitality that the Old South has lost

J.M. McGlinn – Stanley feels judged by Blanche, and his rape of her is his attempt to get her to admit that she is a sexual animal, like him
Blanche is not the only DuBois who lives in illusions: Stella is in an illusion too, that she is happy and free in her life with Stanley
Both Blanche and Stella’s illusions are done for the personal good at the sake of the communal good

Jackie Shead – Blanche’s trunk “unifies” the poetic and literal realms of the play and is representative of her journey

John Gassner – The poeticism of the play is representative of “psychological reality”
Viewing the play in terms of Aristotelian tragedy means accepting that Stanley performed the “act of destruction” which Blanche should have performed herself
Psychopathology “is a substitute for fate” in directing actions within the play when compared to traditional drama

John M. Clum – Blanche is a camp character who represents male homosexuality — she is not “straight” and is in closest proximity to the “degenerate” of the play

Judith J. Thompson – Williams’ drama is a “myth for our time”, portraying man’s constant search for transcendensce and imbuing the human with religious significance

Kierkegaard – An interpretation in the framework of Kierkegaard sees characters as existing within one of three stages: aesthetic (seeking constant short-term pleasure), ethical (working towards a greater good) or religious (working towards God).
In Streetcar, the aesthetic stage can be seen in Blanche and the ethical stage–albeit a misguided version–can be seen in Stanley; interestingly, the religious stage is nowhere to be found

Leonard Berkman – The trauma that underpins Blanche’s reality is not Allen Grey being a “degenerate”, as Stella believes, but the fact that she caused his suicide

Leonardo Quirino – Streetcar is an allegory for the journey the pure soul (Blanche) goes through when subjected to the brutality of matter (Stanley)
The card game is a symbol of fate and the way it can be manipulated

Mary McCarthy – Blanche symbolises art, as she veils herself from truth and is ultimately of a different type of people from those who exist wholly in the “real world” of Elysian Fields

Nancy Tischner – The play is decidedly not a classical tragedy — Blanche is “pathetically soft” and not a traditional tragic figure and we leave the theatre outraged rather than soothed
The play is a collection of one act plays, forming a rather non-traditional narrative out of eleven separate narratives

Nietzschean – A Nietzschean interpretation is based on the idea that there is a struggle existing in the best tragic works between the Apollonian, our higher functions — reason, imagination, and so on — and the Dionysian, our search for pleasure
Blanche and Stanley show how these two impulses can be dysfunctional when taken to an extreme: Blanche is the Apollonian who exists only in illusion and Stanley is the destructive Dionysian who gives in entirely to his base instincts

Normand Berlin – Sex equalises all characters in the play, as they are all beholden to their sexual impulses
Blanche uses as a refuge, where she can find “the kindness of strangers” as cannot be found elsewhere in her life

Psychoanalytic – The psychoanalytic perspective focuses on the way texts create representations of the mind and the way tics of the mind manifest themselves in texts
As the play focuses on the two drives Freud believed caused human activity — eros (sex/creation) and thanatos (death/destruction) — the play is a holistic account of human life

Robert Brustein – The conflict between Blanche and Stanley is the conflict between effeminate culture and masculine libido

Vivienne Dickinson – The play focuses on the modern symbol of the railways and links them to Stanley; at one time, the play ended with Blanche throwing herself on the railtracks to kill herself

O x

Meet the New Bloggers!

Hi, we’re your new English Literature bloggers.

Unfortunately, Ella, Beth and Hadiyah have moved on to university where they will be studying and so they can no longer update the blog! We’ve been selected to replace them and continue to post great resources like revision notes and mind maps. We will start sporadically now but will pick it up properly in September. We also have notes for year 12 topics so don’t be alarmed if there is some overlap in what we post.

We will be making some changes too — but don’t be scared, we’re sure you’ll love them!

Maria, Martha, Oliver

P.S. You can always contact us on — we love corresponding, penpalship is the future.

Example Essay – Education and Social Class (Poems of the Decade)

Image © Artistmaterial

Here is another Poems of the Decade essay, this time on the question:

Explore the ways in which poets present the theme of education and social class in ‘Out of the Bag’ by Seamus Heaney and ‘Poetry’ by Tom Leonard

Click here to download the file (PDF)

‘Poetry’ was an unseen poem – it isn’t currently available online (that I can find), but you can read other poems by Tom Leonard on his website.


Commentary From Roderick Ford on ‘Giuseppe’

Image – Sicily © Radio Times

A follower of this blog, Anees Malik, has generously shared with us an email she received from Roderick Ford (the poet who wrote ‘Giuseppe’) detailing his own inspiration for and interpretation of the poem, which you can read below. However, it is important to remember, as the poet himself states, that any interpretation is valid, and you will still gain marks in an exam for a reading of a text which does not match its writer’s intention. It is also useful to keep in mind that AO3 is not assessed in the modern poetry unit, so referencing Ford’s views will not automatically gain you marks unless you link it to your argument (in the A2 exam, it should also ideally be linked to the unseen poem).

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Romantic Poetry Context

Image © The Wordsworth Trust

Broad Romantics – Dated between 1789 and 1848

Preceding – Augustan Age (1700-1750) was about wit, classical, well-educated: Alexander Pope, Age of Sensibility (1750-1798) was about emotion: Samuel Johnson

Jean Jacques Rousseau – “Man is born free and everywhere he is in chains”. Believed that children are born naturally good and puts emphasis on creativity and the imagination which sought children out as said philosophers and closer to God. He challenged traditional moral and religious teaching, claiming “man is naturally good, loving justice and order”. He also argued that the ills of man would be cured with a return to nature.

Denis Diderot – Was a philosopher around the same time as Rousseau who believed future should be built on reason. He wrote the first Encyclopædia, mapping human development without God.

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How much is Desdemona to blame for the tragedy of Othello?


How much is Desdemona to blame for the tragedy of Othello?

  • Desdemona is a defiant character who displays duality.
  • Her duality of being assertive and submissive has enabled her to reconcile conflicts e.g. her marriage to Othello.
  • This duality brings the theme of appearance and reality into play – Iago exploits this and depicts her as being untrustworthy and unfaithful, knowing that this would anger Othello because his greatest weakness is jealousy.
  • Act III, scene III is crucial in portraying her insistent nature – it marks the moment where Iago’s machinations begin fully.

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