Alternative Critical Interpretations of A Streetcar Named Desire

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One of the Assessment Objectives for A Streetcar Named Desire in the AS Drama and Poetry exam is AO5 – alternative critical interpretations. This AO does not exist for A Streetcar Named Desire in the A2 Drama exam but it can still count as AO3 (context). The following is a list of critics and critical perspectives that I have collected over the last year. While it is not necessary to know the names of specific critics or perspectives, it is helpful — but I know it is easy to forget, so you can replace their names with stock phrases, such as “Critics say…” or “Some have interpreted this as…”.

Albert Wertheim – Stella and Stanley’s baby represents the future — which is a Kowalski future, not a DuBois future, as shown by Blanche being removed and Stanley staying in the household, the ultimate victory

Benjamin Nelson – Blanche’s tragedy manifests itself in the diegetic of the play, making it a universal tragedy (the Blind Mexican Woman is a pertinent example of this)

Bert Cardullo – Blanche’s courting of Mitch mirrors Mary Magdalene’s courting of Jesus and her eventual redemption through it; this is twisted by Mitch’s rejection of Blanche

Brooks Atkinson – Streetcar is a deep exploration of a singular person with no sociopolitical aspects

Elia Kazan (the director of the first stage productions and the film of Streetcar) – Stanley didn’t want to rape Blanche, but was eventually forced to by her refusal to bargain with him on his own terms
Stella has found a sort of salvation with Stanley, but at the tremendous cost that she must ignore how unhappy his actions make her
Blanche’s tragic flaw is that she adheres to the Southern tradition that she needs a man for completion — she can complete herself

Harold Bloom (one of the most important literary critics of the 20th/21st century) – With his characters, Williams builds up archetypes and then destroys our preconceived notions of them (i.e. Blanche as purity, Stanley as machismo)
Desire is the single most important theme of the play — even Blanche, who initially seems to represent purity, is tainted by desire
Stella is genuinely in love with Stanley, “like many battered women”
Blanche is “a failed Whitmanian”

Henry Popkin – Conducted a study of Williams’ work and found three major character types: the Adonis (Stanley), the Gargoyle (Stella) and the Failed Ingenue (Blanche)
Stanley’s “disrespectful” speech symbolises his freedom and vitality while Blanche’s “respectful” speech shows how she is rooted to the past

J.H. Adler – Stanley is more creative than destructive – he shows the vitality that the Old South has lost

J.M. McGlinn – Stanley feels judged by Blanche, and his rape of her is his attempt to get her to admit that she is a sexual animal, like him
Blanche is not the only DuBois who lives in illusions: Stella is in an illusion too, that she is happy and free in her life with Stanley
Both Blanche and Stella’s illusions are done for the personal good at the sake of the communal good

Jackie Shead – Blanche’s trunk “unifies” the poetic and literal realms of the play and is representative of her journey

John Gassner – The poeticism of the play is representative of “psychological reality”
Viewing the play in terms of Aristotelian tragedy means accepting that Stanley performed the “act of destruction” which Blanche should have performed herself
Psychopathology “is a substitute for fate” in directing actions within the play when compared to traditional drama

John M. Clum – Blanche is a camp character who represents male homosexuality — she is not “straight” and is in closest proximity to the “degenerate” of the play

Judith J. Thompson – Williams’ drama is a “myth for our time”, portraying man’s constant search for transcendensce and imbuing the human with religious significance

Kierkegaard – An interpretation in the framework of Kierkegaard sees characters as existing within one of three stages: aesthetic (seeking constant short-term pleasure), ethical (working towards a greater good) or religious (working towards God).
In Streetcar, the aesthetic stage can be seen in Blanche and the ethical stage–albeit a misguided version–can be seen in Stanley; interestingly, the religious stage is nowhere to be found

Leonard Berkman – The trauma that underpins Blanche’s reality is not Allen Grey being a “degenerate”, as Stella believes, but the fact that she caused his suicide

Leonardo Quirino – Streetcar is an allegory for the journey the pure soul (Blanche) goes through when subjected to the brutality of matter (Stanley)
The card game is a symbol of fate and the way it can be manipulated

Mary McCarthy – Blanche symbolises art, as she veils herself from truth and is ultimately of a different type of people from those who exist wholly in the “real world” of Elysian Fields

Nancy Tischner – The play is decidedly not a classical tragedy — Blanche is “pathetically soft” and not a traditional tragic figure and we leave the theatre outraged rather than soothed
The play is a collection of one act plays, forming a rather non-traditional narrative out of eleven separate narratives

Nietzschean – A Nietzschean interpretation is based on the idea that there is a struggle existing in the best tragic works between the Apollonian, our higher functions — reason, imagination, and so on — and the Dionysian, our search for pleasure
Blanche and Stanley show how these two impulses can be dysfunctional when taken to an extreme: Blanche is the Apollonian who exists only in illusion and Stanley is the destructive Dionysian who gives in entirely to his base instincts

Normand Berlin – Sex equalises all characters in the play, as they are all beholden to their sexual impulses
Blanche uses as a refuge, where she can find “the kindness of strangers” as cannot be found elsewhere in her life

Psychoanalytic – The psychoanalytic perspective focuses on the way texts create representations of the mind and the way tics of the mind manifest themselves in texts
As the play focuses on the two drives Freud believed caused human activity — eros (sex/creation) and thanatos (death/destruction) — the play is a holistic account of human life

Robert Brustein – The conflict between Blanche and Stanley is the conflict between effeminate culture and masculine libido

Vivienne Dickinson – The play focuses on the modern symbol of the railways and links them to Stanley; at one time, the play ended with Blanche throwing herself on the railtracks to kill herself

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Good Luck for Poetry & Drama!

Just a quick post from us at blogasenglish to wish everyone taking the Poetry & Drama exam tomorrow morning the very best of luck! Everyone has worked sooo hard and as long as you pick the question you feel most confident with, think carefully about the poem you will choose to compare and put in many alternative Streetcar opinions (as well as all the other correct AOs), you will do amazingly! Feel free to ask anymore questions and we’ll do our best to answer before we head off to bed before the big day 🙂

Ella, Beth & Hadiyah

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Sample Essay – Nature and Freedom

ESSAY – Nature and freedom

(CLICK ON THE TITLE ABOVE TO VIEW)

Here is a sample essay I wrote on how the question…

Compare the methods both poets use to explore the universal theme of nature and freedom in The Furthest Distances I’ve travelled and one other poem

I decided to write about the poems ‘The Furthest Distances I’ve Travelled’ and ‘History’. Feel free to use as exemplar material.

My only target was to be a little more succinct. “Comprehensive analysis with effective comparisons throughout. Also, interesting choice of 2nd poem”

By Ella
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Essay Tips – Drama Structure

Here is a simple outline of the structure that I try to follow when writing my essays. It  is not necessarily the best way to write, there are many other effective ways, so don’t think that if you don’t like this structure or have a preferred way of organising an essay that it is not correct.

Remember to include AO1, AO2, AO3 and AO5 in every paragraph.

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A Streetcar Named Desire – Critical Opinions

Image © The Guardian

In the exam, you will be marked on AO5 (Explore the ways different people (including critical thought) react to, and interpret texts.)

You will need to include some sense of debate in your essay but offering different interpretations of the same point, it could be a separate paragraph or within the same paragraph. You can do this by either, offering a different opinion “However, in a differing opinion, it could be suggested…” or you can use critics opinions to aid what you are saying. You can also discuss how the characters have been interpreted differently in stage and film adaptations of the play. For this exam, it doesn’t matter if you don’t include the critic’s name, but make sure you re using it to illustrate a point and not just throwing it in for the sake of it!

Here are some critical opinions we have looked at in class, of course don’t try and remember all of them, but gather a selection that you can use in your essay if appropriate.

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Essay Tips – Poetry Structure

Here is a simple outline of the structure that I try to follow when writing my essays. It  is not necessarily the best way to write, there are many other effective ways, so don’t think that if you don’t like this structure or have a preferred way of organising an essay that it is not correct.

Remember to include AO1, AO2 and AO4 in every paragraph.

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Pearson Edexcel Example Essays – A STREETCAR NAMED DESIRE

Image © Bigstock

As we have already linked for poetry, here is the exemplar essays pack provided by Edexcel. There are examples of essay on A Streetcar Named Desire all of varying grades.

When it comes to writing essays, it can be really hard to know how to structure them because you cannot keep the style from GCSE, it’s just not complex and sophisticated enough. You may also not know how to write a great introduction or conclusion!

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